Wayfair Business Model Explained

Wayfair Inc. (NYSE: W) is a leading online retailer for home furnishings and décor. Entrepreneurs Steve Conine and Niraj Shah founded the company in 2002 and headquartered it in Boston, Massachusetts. Initially, the company went by CSN Stores, a combination of the founders’ initials. In 2011, they rebranded and took on the name Wayfair. 

Wayfair deals with home goods. As one of the leading home goods retailers, it offers an expansive inventory and works with top-rated brands like Bosch, Kichler, and Raymond Waites. Everything from area rugs and wall art to vanities and sofas is available on their website. As of 2019, the company controlled 33% of the U.S. online furniture market.

The key to Wayfair’s success lies in its business model. It’s interesting to see how a company that began as an online home goods retailer has become one of the most valuable companies in its industry. This article will explore the Wayfair business model and analyze how the company makes money.

Bottom Line Up Front

Wayfair operates a marketplace business model. The company connects customers with sellers who offer a wide range of home goods. It also stocks some inventory in its warehouses and ships directly to customers. Wayfair’s primary source of revenue is product sales. The company also generates revenue from advertising, installation fees, interchange fees, and interest from cards.

How Does Wayfair Work?

Wayfair connects customers with over 33 million products from 23,000 suppliers. The company offers a convenient one-stop shopping experience for customers who are looking for home furnishings and décor. 

Apart from the products, it also provides valuable services to help customers make informed decisions about their purchases. These include a 3D room planner tool, expert design advice from Wayfair Next, professional installation services, and more. Customers can also take advantage of the company’s financing options to make their purchases more affordable.


The company uses a hybrid inventory model. A hybrid inventory model combines first-party (Wayfair-owned) and third-party (supplier-owned) inventory. However, it only holds a small portion of first-party inventory and relies heavily on third-party suppliers. This model gives Wayfair the flexibility to offer a wide range of products without bearing the cost and risk of holding large amounts of inventory. 

At the core of Wayfair’s business model is its logistics network. When a customer buys a product from Wayfair, the company uses its network of warehouses and distribution centers to ship the product directly to the customer’s door. This efficient delivery system is a crucial differentiator for Wayfair and has helped the company gain a competitive advantage in the market. Moreover, it has seamless integration with its suppliers, allowing it to track inventory levels and ensure that shipping is on time.

Wayfair Company History

Wayfair started as a two-person company in a Boston loft in 2002. Niraj Shah and Steve Conine, childhood friends who had worked in the e-commerce industry, came up with the idea of an online store that would sell home goods. The two entrepreneurs used their knowledge of the internet to build a website and sourced products from suppliers. In just a few months, they had a functioning business.

The company was initially called CSN Stores, representing Conine and Shah’s initials. The first website they created was racksandstands.com, which sold T.V. stands and storage furniture. They quickly expanded their product offerings and launched more websites. By 2008, CSN Stores was operating 200 niche e-commerce sites and generating $600 million in revenue. In 2011, the company rebranded as Wayfair and raised $165 million in venture capital to fuel its growth. 

Wayfair Company History

In 2012 the CSN stores consolidated all its websites into one platform, Wayfair.com. The move wasn’t easy, and it lost 75% of its traffic. Because Wayfair was moving the sites in batches, it took more than one year to transition fully. But once the process was complete, it had a much more streamlined website that was easier to navigate.

Wayfair continued to make changes and advancements to its website. For instance, in 2013, customers could save designs and room ideas using a clipboard feature. 2013 was successful for Wayfair, as it generated close to $1 billion in revenue for the first time. The company made its first significant acquisition in 2013, buying DwellStudio, an online retailer for modern home furnishings, for an undisclosed amount. 

Wayfair’s $157 million pre-IPO financing led by T. Rowe Price in March 2014 valued the company at more than $2 billion. Wayfair went on to have a successful IPO in October 2014, raising $319 million. The company wasn’t profitable and had to sell Temple and Webster, its Australian businesses. 

Over the following years, the company heavily invested in technology and marketing, including advertising spots on national T.V. These investments brought about increased revenues, but the losses grew with it. The Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 was a blessing in disguise for Wayfair. As more people stayed home, the demand for home goods increased, and Wayfair’s sales soared. The company reported its first-ever quarterly profit in the second quarter of 2020.

Wayfair Business Model Explained

The reason behind Wayfair’s success is its business model. The company uses a marketplace model, a type of e-commerce where businesses sell products or services to customers through an online platform. Although Wayfair holds some inventory levels, it primarily relies on third-party suppliers to stock its marketplace. This model has several benefits.

First, the marketplace model is less capital-intensive than traditional e-commerce, where businesses must invest in inventory and warehousing. Second, it gives Wayfair a more comprehensive selection of products to offer customers. And third, this model allows Wayfair to scale quickly and efficiently.

Wayfair’s Value Proposition

Wayfair's Value Proposition

Wayfair’s value proposition is a reflection of its business model. Below are some of the key elements of Wayfair’s value proposition:

To Customers

Wayfair has more than 24 million customers who turn to the site for its broad selection of home goods and competitive prices. The website has listings for more than 33 million products from over 23,000 suppliers who offer competitive prices. Moreover, the company’s portfolio of brands provides customers with a one-stop shop where they can discover styles, new trends, and ideas for their homes.

The website’s imagery is also a key element of Wayfair’s value proposition. The site uses high-quality product photos and videos to give customers a realistic view of the products. Customers can also use the website’s 3D visualization tool to see how furniture would look in their homes before making a purchase.

By supporting the customer’s journey with content, Wayfair can increase customer loyalty and retention. The company has a team of in-house designers who create trend reports, design tips, and style guides. Customers can also find inspiration on the website’s blog, which features articles on home décor trends and DIY projects.

To Suppliers

Wayfair offers suppliers a vast customer base and a platform for promoting their products. The company takes a hands-off approach with supplier relationships, giving them the freedom to set their prices and manage their inventory. This freedom allows suppliers to be more agile and responsive to customer demand.

Wayfair’s proprietary technology also gives suppliers an edge. The company developed sophisticated algorithms that help match customer demand with supplier inventory. This technology ensures that customers can find the products they’re looking for and that suppliers can sell their products quickly. Moreover, the company offers supplier branding opportunities, such as product videos, 3D creations, and banner ads.

Wayfair’s Marketing Strategy

Another critical element of Wayfair’s success is its marketing strategy. In F.Y. 2021, 10.1% of the company’s revenues were spent on marketing, slightly increasing from 10% in F.Y. 2020. Wayfair’s marketing primarily focuses on acquiring new and repeat customers through digital channels. Below are some of the critical elements of Wayfair’s marketing strategy:

Search Engine Optimization

Wayfair's Marketing Strategy

Wayfair invests heavily in search engine optimization (SEO) to drive traffic to its website. The company uses a data-driven approach to SEO, which involves constantly testing and tweaking algorithms to improve performance. This approach has helped Wayfair rank highly for keywords such as “home furnishings” and “furniture.”

Display Advertising

Wayfair also uses display advertising to reach potential customers. The company has a team of designers and copywriters who create high-impact ads targeted to specific demographics. Wayfair’s ads typically feature images of stylish home furnishings and décor, along with a call-to-action (CTA) such as “Shop Now.”

Social Media Marketing

Wayfair uses social media to connect with customers and promote its brand. The company has active accounts on major platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Wayfair’s social media posts typically feature images of stylish home furnishings and décor, along with links to product pages.

Direct Mail

Although it’s a less common marketing channel for e-commerce businesses, Wayfair also uses direct mail to reach potential customers. The company sends catalogs and postcards with images of stylish home furnishings and décor. Customers can order products by visiting the Wayfair website or calling a customer service representative.

Television Advertising

In addition to digital channels, Wayfair also uses television advertising to reach potential customers. The company pays for spots on popular cable networks such as HGTV and the Discovery Channel. While television advertising is more expensive than digital channels, it can reach a wider audience.

Revenue Model: How Wayfair Makes Money


Wayfair makes money from five primary sources:

  1. Product sales
  2. Marketing services
  3. Installation services
  4. Interchange fee
  5. Interest

Wayfair Inc. also makes money from its wholly owned subsidiaries, including Wayfair LLC, CastleGate Logistics Inc., SK Retail, Inc., Fairway Insurance Inc., and Wayfair Transportation LLC, among others.

Product Sales

Product Sales

Product sales make up the vast majority of Wayfair’s revenues. These are all the products it sells on its main website and those from its subsidiaries. The company buys the products in bulk from sellers and suppliers at a discount and then marks them up to make a profit. Given the thousands of products Wayfair sells, it can negotiate favorable terms with suppliers. 

Wayfair still maintains the drop shipping model it built with its suppliers long ago. In drop shipping, the company acts as a middleman between suppliers and customers. When a customer orders a product on the platform, the company contacts the supplier, who then ships the product directly to the customer. Wayfair offers free shipping on most products, which helps it compete with Amazon.

Marketing Services

Wayfair has more than 33 million active customers as of 2021. Given the size of its customer base, the company has significant bargaining power with suppliers. As a result, Wayfair can charge suppliers a marketing fee for sponsored products. These products appear at the top of search results or in other prominent positions on the website. 

Wayfair offers other marketing services, including native advertising on the company’s YouTube channel and blog. In native advertising, Wayfair promotes a supplier’s product by featuring it in an article or video. The supplier pays Wayfair a fixed fee for this service. In sponsored posts, it’s likely that Wayfair charges suppliers based on the number of views or clicks their product receives.

Installation Services

Installation Services

Another way Wayfair makes money is by offering installation services. The company has a team of installation experts who can assemble and install products such as cabinets, countertops, and appliances. Customers can schedule an installation appointment online. 

Wayfair charges an installation fee for this service. The fee varies depending on the product being installed and the location of the customer’s home. For example, installing a countertop might cost $200, while installing a refrigerator could cost $500. The option for installation services is available during the checkout process on the Wayfair website.

Interchange Fee

Wayfair also charges sellers an interchange fee. Wayfair launched two credit cards in 2020; one is in partnership with MasterCard, and the other is in collaboration with Citi Bank. These cards allow customers to receive 5% cashback on products bought at Wayfair and don’t have discounts or annual fees on first purchases.

However, the company charges sellers an interchange fee when payments are made using the Wayfair credit card. Merchants are responsible for paying the interchange fee of less than 1%. MasterCard will charge the fee, and Wayfair will receive a percentage because it’s the card issuer. The interchange fee is a small but significant source of revenue for Wayfair. 


Whenever a cardholder pays for a purchase using the Wayfair credit card and doesn’t pay off the balance in full at the end of the billing period, interest will accrue on the unpaid balance. The current annual percentage rate (APR) for Wayfair MasterCard is 26.99%. Although the APR is high, it’s not uncommon for store-branded credit cards. 

Wayfair’s Financials and Valuation

Social Media Marketing

According to Data from Crunchbase, Wayfair raised $1.7 billion from four funding rounds. In October 2014, Wayfair went public on the New York Stock Exchange, raising $319 million. The IPO valued the company at $3.1 billion, according to PitchBook. As of September 30, 2022, Wayfair had a market capitalization of $3.541 billion

Wayfair hasn’t been consistent with its profits, raising concerns about its business model. For instance, since 2012, the company has been on a loss-making spree. In 2019, it reported its highest yearly loss of $984.58 million. 2020 was a better year for the company, making $185 million in profits. But that would be primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which saw a surge in online shopping. 2021 followed with a loss of $131 million. 

If the company can’t generate enough revenue to cover its costs, it will have to raise more money through debt or equity. Looking at its growth trajectory, it doesn’t seem like Wayfair will be profitable anytime soon. According to SeekingAlpha, its CAGR for 2022 is about 23%, which is significantly lower compared to the 35% it reported in 2019. 

Note that in 2020 we had the Covid-19 pandemic, which greatly influenced people’s shopping habits and increased the popularity of online stores like Wayfair. But reporting lower growth two years after the pandemic was at its peak indicates that the company’s business model might have some flaws. However, the volatility that came with the pandemic makes it hard to ultimately judge Wayfair’s business model on 2019’s results. 

FAQs – Wayfair Business Model Explained

Question: What is Wayfair’s Competitive Advantage?

Answer: Wayfair’s competitive advantage is its focus on the home furnishings and decor market. Unlike Amazon, which sells everything from books to groceries, Wayfair only sells products for the home. This focus allows Wayfair to understand the home furnishings and decor market deeply. Moreover, the company has a large network of suppliers and many customers, which gives it economies of scale and scope. 

Question: What Type of E-Commerce is Wayfair?

Answer: Wayfair is a marketplace e-commerce platform. It connects customers with sellers who offer a wide range of home furnishings and decor products. The company doesn’t carry much inventory and relies on suppliers to ship products directly to customers. 

Question: Who is the Biggest Competitor of Wayfair?

Answer: Wayfair faces stiff competition from several large retailers, including Amazon, Ikea, Walmart, and Target. These companies have a significant presence in the online and offline retail space. Moreover, they have a strong brand name and offer competitive prices. 

Bottom Line

The Wayfair business model combines drop shipping and marketplaces to create a unique e-commerce platform. These two models work together to give Wayfair a competitive advantage in the home furnishings and decor market. While its revenues have been increasing, the company is yet to become profitable. 

The more significant concern is its declining growth rate, which indicates that the company might not be able to sustain its current business model in the long term. But the company has a strong brand name and a large customer base, which gives it a good chance of success. 

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